The first menstruation (it is called menarche) is an important event in the girl’s life. Unexpectedly, she, as a rule, does not happen – older girlfriends inform. And under the influence of these conversations, some girls are even afraid of the onset of menstruation. Unfortunately, for some reason, many mothers are embarrassed to talk with their daughters about this in detail, limited only to hygienic advice.
But the girl needs to know that the beginning of menstruation marks an important milestone in puberty. Once there is menstruation, then pregnancy is also possible. Another thing is that the girl’s body is still underdeveloped, and therefore pregnancy and childbirth can be an overwhelming test for her. Cases of very difficult childbirth in girls 14 to 15 years old obstetricians are known …
The first menstruation usually appears at the age of 13 plus or minus a year. Fluctuations in either direction may be somewhat more. But if the menstruation began very early (up to 10 years) or very late (after 15), some trouble may be suspected, and the girl should be shown to the doctor.
Causes of menstruation delay (menarche) are varied: sometimes it is an individual peculiarity of the body, sometimes the result of infectious diseases or emotional stresses and physical overloads experienced in early childhood, as it happens, for example, in girls who exercise gymnastics too hard and uncontrollably. sign of an endocrine or other disorder.
Menstruation is the final stage of a complex chain of processes that occur rhythmically in the female body. Each such cycle fits into 26–30 days, sometimes it is shorter — 21 days and longer — 35 days.
What happens during the menstrual cycle, then. Is there a period from the first day of one to the first day of the next menstruation?
The cycle is divided into two phases. The main event of the first – the maturation of the egg and its exit from the ovary; This period is characterized by activity in the body of special hormones – estrogen; in the second phase, another hormone, progesterone, becomes dominant. Under their influence changes occur in all hormone-dependent organs: the uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina. mammary glands. But the mucous membrane lining the uterus changes most of all. Its blood supply increases, it swells, becomes loose.
These changes are designed to ensure that in the case of pregnancy a fertilized egg, which, by this time, has advanced through the tube. enters the uterus, could attach itself securely and begin to develop. If fertilization did not occur, the swollen mucosa is rejected along with the unfertilized egg cell. This is menstrual bleeding.
The rhythmic menstrual cycle for many is not established immediately, but in about six months, a year. Prior to this, menstruation may occur, and more often, and less often, be sometimes very scarce, then, on the contrary, abundant.
On the eve of menstruation, girls often complain of heaviness in the lower abdomen, mild headache, weakness. These are natural phenomena and should not cause concern. By the way, some girls in the days of menstruation are more irritable, touchy, their mood deteriorates. Such reactions have to be learned to overcome, otherwise it will be difficult for the others themselves to be unpleasant.
During menstruation, mental and physical performance is not reduced, and the girl can do all her normal activities without changing her usual routine. You can do morning exercises, refraining only from exercises associated with large overloads. Running, cycling, skiing, skating, swimming is contraindicated, as this can lengthen the duration of menstruation and increase blood loss. Swimming is also prohibited due to possible cooling and the risk of infection entering the uterine cavity, since there is no natural mucus plug that usually closes the cervical canal during menstruation. These days do not take a bath.
Out of hygiene procedures, two or three times a day are required to wash under a stream of water — from a jug or shower, sharing a shower whenever possible every day and, at least, at least once a week. It is necessary to use special pads or cotton, daily change panties.
Menstruation lasts an average of 3 to 5 days, while the blood is not lost much – from 50 to 100 milliliters. If her duration is longer, and blood loss is stronger, if the girl experiences a sharp headache, cramping abdominal pain, severe weakness, you should definitely contact the pediatric gynecology office or an obstetrician-gynecologist of the antenatal clinic.
I want to warn my parents: a teenage girl cannot yet distinguish what is natural and normal in these new phenomena for her, and what signals her unhappiness. The formation of her menstrual cycle must be carefully followed. First of all, this is, of course, the mother’s business. If the doctor offers treatment – you can not refuse. After all, the future motherhood of the daughter, her marital happiness may depend on whether or not measures are taken in a timely manner.