Even ancient thinkers understood that moderation in food is a guarantee of health and longevity, and those who eat too much were told: “Glutton digs its grave with its teeth”.
Especially dangerous is overeating these days. Indeed, as a result of hypokinesia, people began to spend less energy, and if the amount of energy obtained from food exceeds energy costs, a person is threatened with obesity, and with it many other diseases and shortened life expectancy.
True, the human body constantly monitors the state of the energy balance through neurohormonal mechanisms. And the most important role belongs to the mechanisms of regulation of appetite.
In the central nervous system, the hypothalamus is responsible for the formation of feelings of hunger and satiety. It has a “center of hunger” and a “center of satiety”. The excitation and inhibition of these centers is regulated by glucose in the blood; when its level decreases, the activity of the “center of satiety” is suppressed, as a result the inhibiting impulses going from it to the “hunger center” are reduced, which causes an increase in appetite.
It is known, however, that appetite does not always correspond to the physiological needs of the organism. Most often, increased appetite develops due to the habit of eating a lot. In some families, it is traditional. As a rule, obesity becomes a consequence of overeating. Moreover, it is especially dangerous to overfeed children at an early age. Scientists have shown that these children increase the number of adipocytes (fat cells) in the body and develop the most severe, difficult to treat form of obesity.
Obesity is certainly serious, but, unfortunately, not the only consequence of overeating.
In recent years, it was possible to identify the possibility of development as a result of systematically overeating a number of deviations in metabolism, even if the body weight remains normal. Doctors define this condition as “the metabolic status of a fat patient without obesity”. First of all, such a person is disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, in particular, develops hyperinsulinemia (increased secretion of insulin in the blood). increase the tone of the sympathetic nervous system, the activity of thyroid hormones of the thyroid gland, blood pressure.
The frequent combination of arterial hypertension and overeating has attracted the close attention of scientists and forced them to clarify the mechanisms for increasing blood pressure in this category of patients. Studies have shown that there is a lot of sodium in their diet, even if they do not abuse salty foods. The fact is that, consuming a large amount of food every day, along with it, they get an excessive amount of sodium, which is found in almost all products, including non-salty ones. And an excess of sodium in the body, as you know, contributes to high blood pressure.
Thus, overeating, even without causing obesity, can cause arterial hypertension.
It causes a significant overvoltage of the enzyme systems of the digestive organs. And this is a direct path to gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, to the dysfunction of the liver and biliary tract, to the development of cholelithiasis.
With excessive consumption of fats with food, the cholesterol metabolism is disturbed, which is known to contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Recently, an important role in the occurrence of this extremely common pathology is given to the violation of the ratio between the two types of lipoproteins contained in the blood – the particles that transport lipids (fats). There are low-density and very low-density lipoproteins that contain many lipids, including cholesterol, and little protein, as well as high-density lipoproteins. containing significant amounts of protein.
Particles of the first type contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. And the increase in their content in the blood is associated primarily with overeating.
Mass surveys conducted in our country and abroad indicate that the population of developed countries eats too much sugar. Passion for pastries, sweets. ice cream can disrupt the endocrine function of the pancreas and lead to the development of diabetes.
There is another extreme. Some believe, for example, that to include in the diet foods rich in fats and carbohydrates. harmful, and excess protein is not dangerous. But they are deeply mistaken. Overeating protein foods is also highly undesirable. Children and the elderly are especially sensitive to excessive amounts of protein in the diet: first of all they suffer from the liver and kidneys, since the liver in this case has to digest an excessively large amount of amino acids entering it, and the kidneys excrete increased amounts of protein metabolism in the urine. In addition, constantly consuming proteins in excess, a person gets a lot of purine nucleotides that make up the nucleic acids.