First aid for hypothermia
The effect of cold on the entire surface of the body, when its temperature drops below 35 °, causes a general cooling of the body. Prolonged action of low temperatures can lead to freezing, while body functions are inhibited, until their complete extinction. However, one should not think that when freezing the body temperature reaches zero. A person dies when his body temperature drops to 17 – 25 °.
The body becomes less resistant to cooling during fasting, considerable fatigue, alcohol intoxication, ingestion in cold water, as well as after injuries, blood loss. It has been observed that hypothermia occurs faster in the elderly and children. High humidity, strong wind, especially if a person is dressed in light, cramped or wet clothes, contribute to cold injury.
The onset of general cooling has characteristic signs – excitement, chills, blueness of the lips, pallor and coldness of the skin, “goose bumps”, shortness of breath, increased heart rate. Then, fatigue, stiffness, drowsiness, indifference, general weakness appear, a person loses the ability to move independently. If the cooling continues, fainting occurs, the victim loses consciousness, his breath and heart may stop. Especially quickly cooled people, hitting the cold water. For example, at water temperature plus 15 ° it can survive no more than 6 hours.
RENDERING FIRST AID, BEFORE YOU TRANSFER THE VICTORY INTO A WITHOUT AIRWORK, AND BETTER TO THE ROOM WITH A ROOM TEMPERATURE AND WELL-FIT A WOODEN TOWEL, A STONE If the clothes are wet, be sure to remove them and replace them with dry ones. Keep the victim calm, do not allow to move.
It is very important to control the pulse and breathing. If breathing has stopped, start artificial respiration immediately.
WHEN HAS BEEN SUFFERING IN CONSCIOUSNESS, THEN IT MUST BE SHOWN HOT SWEET TEA, COFFEE OR MILK. IN NO EVENT DOES NOT GIVE ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES!
Attempts to warm the injured person quickly (laying on hot water heaters, hot showers, immersion in a warm bath, intensive rubbing) can be disastrous. In this case, first of all, the surface covers are heated, and the warming down of the underlying layers of tissues occurs very slowly. The resulting temperature drop in the tissues impedes the restoration of blood flow, and the surface integuments, not receiving nourishment, die — necrosis (necrosis) of the tissues develops. In addition, during the rapid warming, the red blood distribution of cold blood from the peripheral areas of the body to the central zone, which has a higher temperature, occurs. Further cooling can lead to disruption of the cardiovascular system.
Warming should go from the center to the periphery, that is, due to the heat brought by the blood flow. This is achieved with a gradual general warming of the body, which contributes to the restoration of impaired blood circulation in the tissues.
Local tissue damage due to local exposure to cold is called frostbite. It can occur with prolonged exposure to wind, if a person is in the cold in tight wet shoes or long remains stationary. Most often frostbite exposed fingers, feet, nose, cheeks, ears. At first, the person feels a feeling of cold, then numbness (without pain), and later any sensation disappears in the frozen parts of the body.
DURING DISTURBED UNFINED FROZEN DAMAGED SITES OF THE BODY turn white or gray, they feel soft and painful when feeling. After some time, bubbles are formed, filled with a transparent or white liquid (these are I and II degrees of frostbite). The victim’s body temperature rises, chills, malaise.
FOR FIRST AID, IT IS NECESSARY TO CARRY IT INTO A WARM ROOM, TO REMOVE HIGH SHOES, TO FROZEN AREAS OF THE BODY, MAKE THE HEAT-INSULATING BELTS (ITEMS, CHRISTOPERS, OE-THERMAL INSULATING WRINKERS (ITEMS, CHRISTOPERS, OE-THERMAL INSULATING BINES) THEY SHOULD CLOSE ONLY THE AREA WITH EXPRESSED LEATHER REMEDY. The victim must be given a hot drink (not alcohol!). DAMAGED BODY SITES CANNOT BE GREASED WITH FAT OR OILS, RUNNING THEM WITH SNOW – THIS IS COOLING. CAN INJURY THE SKIN.
DURING DEEP EXTENSIBLE FROZEN COOLED AREAS OF THE BODY AT ALL IS NON-SENSITIVE, THEY ARE SOLID, FROZEN, BREAKFLOW. The fabric dies off and quickly turns black. IN SUCH CASES, URGENTLY CALL “EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE” IS REQUIRED, AND BEFORE THE DOCTOR’S ARRIVAL TO CONTROL PULSE AND BREATH. If the victim is unconscious, lay him on his side when breathing stops, perform artificial respiration.
When frostbite of hands or feet is combined with the general cooling of the body, first of all it is necessary to take all measures for gradual general warming of the affected person.