A premature baby is considered to be a child born before the 38th week of pregnancy, having a body weight of less than 2500 grams, body length—less than 45 centimeters.
The viability of a premature baby depends not only on the weight of the body and the time of birth, but also on how the mother’s pregnancy proceeded.
A premature baby is born more weakened if the mother suffers from cardiovascular, gynecological, endocrine diseases, kidney diseases, suffered infectious diseases during pregnancy, smoked, drank alcohol.
The rate of preterm birth among women smokers is twice as high as among non-smokers. Smoking causes oxygen starvation of the fetus, slows its growth in such women can give birth to a premature baby.
The first days of life — a critical period for a premature baby. As a rule, a premature baby requires special conditions, and from the maternity hospital he is transferred to the hospital. But the child is stronger, and it can be taken home. Now it all depends on the care!
It is clear that a premature baby is more susceptible to any disease than children born on time. Therefore, it is immediately necessary to protect the baby from contact with adults or children who have at least a hint of cough, runny nose, sore throat.
The highest requirements are to clean the room — cleaning must be carried out in a wet way, as the dust is often the carrier settled on her Staphylococcus; often use a vacuum cleaner, try to remove from the room excess furniture, curtains, curtains, absorbing dust.
Not to cool and not overheat!
One of the features of a premature baby is the imperfection of thermoregulation mechanisms, such children are very sensitive to cooling and overheating. Therefore, in hospitals, the weakest, deeply premature children are nursed in special sledges, which maintain a constant temperature and humidity.
By the time of discharge, the regulation is usually better, but still imperfect. The most suitable room temperature for a child – plus 20 — 22°. Do not be afraid of ventilation — it is necessary! In the summer you can keep the window open almost all the time in the winter to ventilate the room at least three times a day for 10 — 15 minutes. The child at this time, it is necessary to leave the room.
Gradually accustom the child to changing temperatures. Bathe your baby every day, preferably at the same time — this is also a tempering procedure. At first, the water should be warm enough (37°); by the end of the first half of its temperature should be reduced to 36°, and when the child turns six months — to 35°. Are needed and walk. If the premature baby was discharged from the hospital in may — August, it can be the next day to make the air for 15 — 20 minutes, and every day increasing the duration of the walk, bring it within a week to one and a half to two hours 3-4 times a day.
In the winter, are allowed to walk at temperatures below -10°, windless days, but on the condition that the body weight of the child reached the 2800 — 3000 grams. The duration of the walk in winter lengthen carefully, gradually: starting with 15 minutes, walk every day for 5 to 10 minutes more, but not more than an hour 2 to 3 times a day.
In spring and autumn, when the outside temperature is above 0° and there is no wind, walks can be started if the child’s body weight is more than 2500 grams.
How to feed?
Of course, the best food for a premature baby — mother’s milk, it provides a growing body not only a full diet, but also urgently needed in this situation, protective substances, enzymes, hormones. But the trouble is that after premature birth, some women have hypogalactia – insufficient milk production. We must try to strengthen it. But if the milk is still not enough, it is necessary to transfer the child to mixed or artificial feeding.
You can give a premature infant mixture “Roborant” specially designed for weak and premature babies. Quite complete are acidophilic mixture “baby”, dry milk mixture of the same name, mixture “Baby”. “DETOLACT”, “Linola”.
To replenish the diet of a premature baby with vitamins and mineral salts, from three Weeks to a month, start giving him fruit and vegetable juices (Apple, lemon, carrot, blackcurrant), the First portions of juice — 3 — 4 drops. Each day, add a few drops and gradually bring the amount of juice to 30 — 50 milliliters.
2 — 3 months should be given fruit and vegetable purees — with a quarter teaspoon to two teaspoons 3 — 5 times a day.
Feeding a premature baby is recommended from 4 months, and as the first lure, vegetable puree is preferable. If a premature baby does not have a tendency to allergic diathesis, add the yolk of a hard-boiled egg, grated in a small amount of milk in the puree. Yolks should be put first, really tiny, then 1/8, then 1/4, and only gradually to bring before the half. At the age of 5 — 5.5 months add a second lure — porridge, buckwheat or oatmeal. These cereals are more complete in their composition than semolina.
7 months premature, the child is given a vegetable soup. You can enable the menu promontory, and then pureed meat (1 teaspoon per day) to 8 months the child should receive in the afternoon to 2 tablespoons of the minced meat together with vegetable mashed potatoes. By 10 months, minced meat is replaced with meatballs, begin to give the child dry cookies, crackers.
Gymnastics, massage, regime.
A premature baby is born weaker, less developed than full-term children. To overcome this lag, it is necessary to deal specifically with its physical development.
Complexes gymnastics and massage premature baby will appoint a children’s clinic. Their conduct is mandatory! Besides, it is necessary to put the child before feeding on 2 — 3 minutes on the stomach first 1 — 2 times a day, and then 3 to 4, This situation strengthens the muscles of neck, abdomen and extremities, it also helps to relief the abdominal pain due to the accumulation of gases, which often affects children during the first months of life.
Premature babies are particularly prone to anemia and rickets. Pediatrician, given such a threat, usually appoints a prophylactic vitamin a 0 iron preparations. His recommendations must be carefully implemented.
The doctor decides the issue of preventive vaccinations. Children who were born with a body weight below 1500. preventive vaccinations in the first year, as a rule, do not, they are transferred to the second year.
With a well-organized care and upbringing, the right mode of the day, a premature baby develops even more intensively than its full-term peers, as if catching up. Studies conducted by specialists in recent years, found that more than half of the preterm infants, whose birth weight was within 1000 grams, to 3 — 5 years completely equalized in terms of physical and mental development with full-term peers. Children with a higher birth weight reach normal levels by a year or even earlier, if they have not suffered during the newborn period or later any serious diseases.
But this alignment, again, achieved sustained parental attention, careful, reasonably gentle, and wisely tempers and exercising regime.