The second trimester of pregnancy, that is, its fourth, fifth, sixth months, in a healthy woman, as a rule, proceeds calmly. The first period of physical and psychological adaptation passed, the nervous system’s reactions balanced, the nausea that worried some women in early pregnancy disappeared, and the appetite improved. In short, the body has adapted to the new state.
You can still work at your usual pace, almost without changing your lifestyle. If there are no diseases and complications of pregnancy, physical activity is not only not contraindicated, but even necessary. Those who are accustomed to do exercises in the mornings, can not interrupt classes – you just need, as in the first trimester, to exclude jumps, breaks, sharp turns.
In the women’s consultation will recommend and a complex of special gymnastics. It is useful to all women in whom the pregnancy proceeds normally, as it helps to strengthen the abdominal muscles, pelvic floor, improves joint mobility, prevents sagging of the abdomen. However, do not be too zealous. If you have been doing gymnastics before, you can do exercises for 20 – 25 minutes, if you haven’t done it – no more than 15 minutes.
Another prerequisite is constant medical supervision. Depending on the characteristics of the course of pregnancy and its term, the female consultation doctor doses the load, recommends excluding some exercises from the complex, including others.
Walking is very useful. You can walk up to two hours in a row, with stops to rest (stand, sit down). Try to organize your day so that there is time left for an additional, at least half an hour, walk before bedtime.
Movement in fresh air improves the supply of oxygen to the fetus, which is so necessary for its development. There are other, simple and accessible measures that you can take to improve the conditions of the intrauterine existence of the unborn child, to prevent complications of pregnancy and childbirth.
These include, in particular, careful adherence to hygienic regime. Daily shower, improving skin respiration, provides a more intense excretion of metabolic products from the body. Washing the breast with cool water, air baths strengthen the skin of the nipples, which helps prevent the appearance of nipple cracks and the development of mastitis.
Of great importance and nutrition. Special restrictions during this period are not required, but it is necessary to take into account the increased need of the body for proteins and vitamins. In the daily diet should be meat or fish, dairy products, especially cottage cheese, eggs.
Necessary and vegetables, fruits, herbs – suppliers of minerals and vitamins. The need for vitamin C, for example, during pregnancy increases a 2 – 3 times. This vitamin, besides other functions, plays an important role in the proper development of the placenta, and the well-being of the fetus is now completely dependent on its condition: after all, it receives nutrients through the placenta, breathes with its help …
The placenta in the second trimester is constantly increasing, at the same time there is an increased growth of the fetus, its organs are formed, and the maternal organism is reported to provide for the new needs of the unborn child. In this connection, the functions of the endocrine organs are rearranged. Parathyroid glands producing parathyroid hormone begin to function intensively. It promotes the absorption of calcium, which is now urgently needed to build the bones of the fetus. In maternal blood, progesterone levels increase, inhibiting the contractile function of the uterus. The need for insulin is increasing, because this hormone stimulates metabolic processes, is the most important regulator of the nutrition of cells and tissues of the body.
With a normal second trimester pregnancy, insulin release increases. It was during this period that diabetic diabetes could be hidden, as the defective pancreas does not cope with the increased load.
The risk of developing diabetes is increased in women whose parents or other blood relatives have been ill with diabetes. Risk factors also include previous genera of large fruit (more than 4500 grams). The first signs of this disease are increased thirst, increased urine excretion, and sometimes itchy skin.
At the slightest suspicion of diabetes, an urgent need to contact the antenatal clinic, where the necessary research will be conducted. If the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment is immediately prescribed, and it should be taken very seriously. Some women, trusting well-being, unfortunately, refuse to inject insulin, and yet they are vital for the mother and the child.
In the second trimester, the endocrine glands of the fetus begin to function, and he himself is already actively producing hormones, so it is very important that the correct correlation be established between the endocrine systems of the mother and the fetus.
Not only the deficiency, but also the excess of maternal hormones can be harmful to the unborn child, because in the latter case the function of its endocrine glands is inhibited. For example, if the mother has an increased thyroid function and has not been treated before and during pregnancy, the child can be born with manifestations of myxedema, a disease caused by thyroid hormone deficiency.
To prevent such complications, women suffering from any, even not pronounced endocrine diseases, must be under medical supervision and must take medications prescribed by a doctor with the greatest care.
The second trimester is a responsible period for women in whom previous pregnancies were interrupted during these periods. For the prevention of miscarriage, they should observe a sparing regimen and if inpatient treatment is recommended, do not refuse it.
It is necessary to carefully attend female consultation. After the sixteenth week of pregnancy, there is usually a tendency to increase in blood pressure, and it is important to monitor its dynamics. In some cases, treatment may be needed, and it is important not to lose time.