The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease (CHD), often resulting in myocardial infarction, is extremely high these days, and a person is only 40-50 years old. And the root cause is that atherosclerosis is “younger”. In this disease, specific formations are deposited on the inner surface of the artery walls – plaques that narrow the lumen of the vessels or even completely block them. If atherosclerosis affects the heart vessels, then when their lumen is narrowed by 50%, there are signs of insufficient supply of the myocardium with blood and oxygen, which leads to coronary disease. If atherosclerosis affects the brain vessels, it can cause a cerebral stroke.So, only a few decades ago, atherosclerosis was the lot of the elderly, the elderly, and now it is developing “rapidly”, prematurely leading to serious complications.
The epidemiological surveys of millions of people of different sex and age living in different social and climatic conditions, conducted by scientists from all over the world, the USA and other countries, revealed 4 main factors responsible for the wide spread of atherosclerosis, including among young people. If we list them in order of importance, first of all we should call malnutrition, when the body gets excess cholesterol with food, its rate rises, then it becomes hypertensive, smoking and low locomotor activity. And these features and distinguish the lifestyle of modern man.
Usually in each patient one of these factors (cholesterol is the norm) plays the main role, the others accompany it, aggravating its detrimental effect on the body.
The leading role of cholesterol in the development of atherosclerosis, more than 70 years ago, was indicated by the Russian scientist N. N. Anichkov. Subsequently, this theory was repeatedly confirmed by various undeniable facts in the experiment and the clinic.
The cholesterol theory of atherosclerosis is also proved by the fact that people with high cholesterol levels, where their blood standards are elevated, are more likely to suffer from atherosclerosis such as coronary heart disease.
What are the numbers of cholesterol in the blood are considered high, and which – normal? Until recently, this indicator was differentiated by sex and age. So, for 30 – 39-year-old women, the rate of cholesterol was about 235 mg%, that is 235 milligrams of cholesterol per 100 milliliters of blood serum, For 40 – 49-year-old women, the cholesterol rate is about 250 mg% and so on. Now, a single, stricter rate of cholesterol is found to contain it in the blood for both men and women of all ages.
Scientists were encouraged by the results of studies showing that if the concentration of cholesterol (normal) in the blood is more than 200 mg%, some of it necessarily begins to be deposited in the wall of blood vessels, regardless of gender and age. When this figure rises to 240 – the rate of atherosclerosis increases by 2 times, and at the level of normal cholesterol in the blood above 240. Mg% – 4 – 5 times.
The excess norm of cholesterol enters the body with food replete with animal fats contained in fatty meats and fish, in fat and butter, in cream and sour cream. However, there are people with congenital resistance (resistance) to the development of atherosclerosis. Cholesterol, which comes from food, as well as “own” (part of cholesterol is synthesized in all in the body) is oxidized in their liver, turning into bile acids, which are eliminated from the body through the intestines. And even that part of cholesterol, which enters the blood, is quickly taken from it by special complexes, delivered to the liver and oxidized.
In contrast, many people are genetically (inborn) predisposed to the development of atherosclerosis. By the way, according to family chronicles, usually in such families there are cases of myocardial infarction or cerebral stroke in blood relatives under the age of 55 years. Cholesterol in people predisposed to atherosclerosis, both from food and from the body, does not oxidize in the liver, because it does not cope with this load, and a significant part of it enters the blood. Excreted cholesterol from the blood very slowly, for a long time it circulates in it and takes part in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Every person must know how much cholesterol is in his blood and whether he is predisposed to atherosclerosis. By the way, I should note with regret: in our country only 1% of the population knows the number of “their” cholesterol! A blood test for cholesterol in it can be done in laboratories at clinics of medical institutes, in hospitals, city and regional, some polyclinics. To donate blood for such an analysis is better after a daily starvation – the amount of cholesterol (normal) will be determined more accurately.
If it turns out that it is above 200 mg%, and even more above 240 mg%, it is necessary to immediately make adjustments to the diet. First of all, reduce by half the amount of foods rich in animal fats: meat, cream, sour cream, and, most importantly, butter. It should also be noted that one egg contains a daily dose of dietary cholesterol. But the share of fruits and vegetables, on the contrary, should be increased by 2 times.
Low-calorie vegetables do not contain fat, but they contain so-called ballast substances. including fiber, which promotes the excretion of cholesterol from the body. Replace half of animal fats with vegetable ones. They contain polyunsaturated fatty acids that normalize lipid, including cholesterol metabolism. Eat porridge once a day. In the shells of cereal grains (except for manna) there are also ballast substances that interact with cholesterol.
It is necessary to strictly monitor the weight of your body. After all, its increase is a signal of the accumulation in the body of excess fat, and hence of cholesterol. If, daily weighing yourself, you find that you are getting stout, increase your energy costs, that is, walk, start to move more, take up any kind of physical education that you like. This is also necessary because a person moving a lot increases the content in the body of substances that remove cholesterol from the vascular wall, which prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
After 3 months, you must re-determine the level of cholesterol in the blood. If, despite normalization of nutrition and increase in motor activity, it does not decrease, this may indicate a congenital predisposition to atherosclerosis, a large amount of “own” cholesterol is synthesized in the body, and possible other changes in the internal environment. In this case, only correction of nutrition and lifestyle is indispensable, and the doctor usually prescribes medication. Among them are drugs that inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the body, stimulate bile formation, thereby increasing the excretion of cholesterol from the bile, as well as activating the “seizure” of cholesterol from the blood and its delivery to the liver. Which of these drugs to choose – the doctor decides. Sometimes the prescription of the drug is preceded by an in-depth examination of the patient in the hospital. Currently, a network of special diagnostic centers is being created in our country (there are 8 of them now), where patients with atherosclerosis will be able to undergo examinations revealing subtle molecular disturbances in the body.
Research conducted by scientists showed that half of those who were diagnosed with cholesterol in the blood, it turned out to be more than 200 mg%, of which only 15% due to genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis, and 35% due to over-nutrition rich in animals. fats. Think about these facts, draw conclusions for yourself. “Limit yourself in food containing cholesterol.